Filter by Set
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Writes the specified objects to the pipeline. If Write-Output is the last command in the pipeline, the objects are displayed in the console.

     [-InputObject] <PSObject[]>

Write-Output sends objects to the primary pipeline, also known as the "output stream" or the "success pipeline." To send error objects to the error pipeline, use Write-Error.

This cmdlet is typically used in scripts to display strings and other objects on the console. One of the built-in aliases for Write-Output is echo and similar to other shells that use echo. The default behavior is to display the output at the end of a pipeline.


Write-Output "Warning: setting not available"
Write-Output "Error message" >> $logfile
Write-Output "$Message" | Tee-Object $logFile -Append

Additional Resources

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Saves command output in a file or variable and also sends it down the pipeline.

   [-InputObject <PSObject>]
   [-FilePath] <String>
   [[-Encoding] <Encoding>]

The Tee-Object cmdlet redirects output, that is, it sends the output of a command in two directions (like the letter T). It stores the output in a file or variable and also sends it down the pipeline. If Tee-Object is the last command in the pipeline, the command output is displayed at the prompt.


Write-Output "$Message" | Tee-Object $logFile -Append
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The PowerShell redirection operators are as follows, where n represents the stream number. The Success stream ( 1 ) is the default if no stream is specified.

  • > Send specified stream to a file. n>
  • >> Append specified stream to a file. n>>
  • >&1 Redirects the specified stream to the Success stream. n>&1

This example sends all Success stream data to a file called script.log.

.\script.ps1 > script.log

This example sends all streams output from a script called script.ps1 to a file called script.log

.\script.ps1 *> script.log

Source: about Redirection - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Writes customized output to a host.

     [[-Object] <Object>]
     [-Separator <Object>]
     [-ForegroundColor <ConsoleColor>]
     [-BackgroundColor <ConsoleColor>]

The Write-Host cmdlet's primary purpose is to produce for-(host)-display-only output, such as printing colored text like when prompting the user for input in conjunction with Read-Host. Write-Host uses the ToString() method to write the output. By contrast, to output data to the pipeline, use Write-Output or implicit output.

Write-Host "no newline test " -NoNewline
Write-Host "second string"

no newline test second string

Further information can be found at Write-Host (Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs.

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The Copy-Item cmdlet copies an item from one location to another location in the same namespace. For instance, it can copy a file to a folder, but it can't copy a file to a certificate drive.

Copy a file to the specified directory

This example copies the mar1604.log.txt file to the C:\Presentation directory. The original file isn't deleted.

Copy-Item "C:\Wabash\Logfiles\mar1604.log.txt" -Destination "C:\Presentation"

Copy directory contents to an existing directory

This example copies the contents of the C:\Logfiles directory into the existing C:\Drawings directory. The Logfiles directory isn't copied.

If the Logfiles directory contains files in subdirectories, those subdirectories are copied with their file trees intact. By default, the Container parameter is set to True, which preserves the directory structure.

Copy-Item -Path "C:\Logfiles\*" -Destination "C:\Drawings" -Recurse

Further information and samples can be found at Copy-Item (Microsoft.PowerShell.Management) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Selects objects or object properties.

The Select-Object cmdlet selects specified properties of an object or set of objects. It can also select unique objects, a specified number of objects, or objects in a specified position in an array.

To select objects from a collection, use the FirstLastUniqueSkip, and Index parameters. To select object properties, use the Property parameter. When you select properties, Select-Object returns new objects that have only the specified properties.

Example 1: Select objects by property

This example creates objects that have the Name, ID, and working set (WS) properties of process objects.

Get-Process | Select-Object -Property ProcessName, Id, WS

Select-Object (Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Module: Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility

Creates table-like custom objects from the items in a comma-separated value (CSV) file.

      [[-Delimiter] <Char>]
      [-Path] <String[]>
      [-Header <String[]>]
      [-Encoding <Encoding>]

The Import-Csv cmdlet creates table-like custom objects from the items in CSV files. Each column in the CSV file becomes a property of the custom object and the items in rows become the property values. Import-Csv works on any CSV file, including files that are generated by the Export-Csv cmdlet.

Import-Csv (Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Module: Microsoft.PowerShell.Core

Performs an operation against each item in a collection of input objects.

            [-InputObject <PSObject>]
            [-Begin <ScriptBlock>]
            [-Process] <ScriptBlock[]>
            [-End <ScriptBlock>]
            [-RemainingScripts <ScriptBlock[]>]

The ForEach-Object cmdlet performs an operation on each item in a collection of input objects. The input objects can be piped to the cmdlet or specified by using the InputObject parameter.

Starting in Windows PowerShell 3.0, there are two different ways to construct a ForEach-Object command.

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Module: Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility

Converts object properties in comma-separated value (CSV) format into CSV versions of the original objects.

                [[-Delimiter] <Char>]
                [-InputObject] <PSObject[]>
                [-Header <String[]>]

The ConvertFrom-Csv cmdlet creates objects from CSV variable-length strings that are generated by the ConvertTo-Csv cmdlet.

ConvertFrom-Csv (Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Selects objects from a collection based on their property values.

     [-InputObject <PSObject>]
     [-Property] <String>
     [[-Value] <Object>]

The Where-Object cmdlet selects objects that have particular property values from the collection of objects that are passed to it. For example, you can use the Where-Object cmdlet to select files that were created after a certain date, events with a particular ID, or computers that use a particular version of Windows.

Example 1: Get stopped services

Get-Service | Where-Object {$_.Status -eq "Stopped"}
Get-Service | where Status -eq "Stopped"

Where-Object (Microsoft.PowerShell.Core) - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Module: Az.ConnectedMachine

Retrieves information about the model view or the instance view of a hybrid machine.

   [-SubscriptionId <String[]>]
   [-DefaultProfile <PSObject>]

Retrieves information about the model view or the instance view of a hybrid machine.

Example 1: List all connected machines in a subscription

Get-AzConnectedMachine -SubscriptionId 67379433-5e19-4702-b39a-c0a03ca8d20c

Name           Location OSName   Status     ProvisioningState
----           -------- ------   ------     -----------------
winwestus2_1   westus2  windows  Connected  Succeeded
linwestus2_1   westus2  linux    Connected  Succeeded
winwestus2_2   westus2  windows  Connected  Succeeded
winwestus2_3   westus2  windows  Connected  Succeeded

Get-AzConnectedMachine (Az.ConnectedMachine) | Microsoft Docs

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Gets preferences for the Windows Defender scans and updates.

  [-CimSession <CimSession[]>]
  [-ThrottleLimit <Int32>]

The Get-MpPreference cmdlet gets preferences for the Windows Defender scans and updates. For more information about the preferences that this cmdlet retrieves, see Windows Defender Preferences Class.

Example to view the scheduled scan day

  • The first command gets the preferences and then stores them in the $Preferences variable.
  • The second command uses standard dot syntax to display the ScanScheduleDay property of the object stored in the $Preferences variable.
$Preferences = Get-MpPreference

Details about the preferences for Windows Defender scans and updates can be found in Set-MpPreference PowerShell Cmdlet.

For additional details visit Get-MpPreference (Defender) | Microsoft Docs.

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Module: Defender

Configures preferences for Windows Defender scans and updates.

The Set-MpPreference cmdlet configures preferences for Windows Defender scans and updates. You can modify exclusion filename extensions, paths, or processes, and specify the default action for high, moderate, and low threat levels.


Example to schedule to check for definition updates everyday.

This command configures preferences to check for definition updates every day.

Set-MpPreference -SignatureScheduleDay Everyday

Additional examples at Schedule antivirus scans using PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

Details about the cmdlet at Set-MpPreference (Defender) | Microsoft Docs

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To construct an array of objects in PowerShell, each item within the array is inherently treated as an object. Unlike conventional arrays that may consist of strings or integers, PowerShell arrays primarily contain objects. Below is a structured example demonstrating the creation of an array comprising objects through explicit declaration:

$people = @(
    [PSCustomObject]@{Name='John'; Age=26},
    [PSCustomObject]@{Name='Jane'; Age=22}

In this illustration, $people is an array variable containing two objects. Each object is defined using the [PSCustomObject] syntax followed by property-value pairs enclosed within curly braces {}. This structured approach ensures clarity and ease of comprehension while creating arrays of objects in PowerShell.

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Using the *-Content cmdlets. There are four *-Content cmdlets:

  • Add-Content – appends content to a file.
  • Clear-Content – removes all content of a file.
  • Get-Content – retrieves the content of a file.
  • Set-Content – writes new content which replaces the content in a file.

The two cmdlets you use to send command or script output to a file are Set-Content and Add-Content. Both cmdlets convert the objects you pass in the pipeline to strings and then output these strings to the specified file. A very important point here – if you pass either cmdlet a non-string object, these cmdlets use each object’s ToString() method to convert the object to a string before outputting it to the file.

See more at How to send output to a file - PowerShell Community (microsoft.com)

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To install PowerShell on Windows, use the following link to get detailed instructions

For Windows 11 you can also use the Microsoft Store.

...see more

After you have created your PowerShell module, you will likely want to install the module on a system, so that you or others may use it. Generally speaking, this consists of copying the module files (ie, the .psm1, or the binary assembly, the module manifest, and any other associated files) onto a directory on that computer.

Installing a PowerShell Module - PowerShell | Microsoft Docs

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Execution Policy is a Windows security measure that determines whether PowerShell scripts can run on a computer. PowerShell scripts cannot run on Windows by default (even for an administrator). The security policy that controls the ability to run PowerShell scripts on Windows is called Execution Policy.

You can check the current Execution Policy value in Windows 10 using the command:


By default in Windows 10, this parameter is set to Restricted, which prevents any PowerShell scripts from executing.

You can set one of the following values in the PowerShell Execution Policy:

  • Restricted — it is a default value. It blocks the execution of any scripts and allows only to run of interactive commands in the PowerShell console;
  • All Signed — allows execution of PowerShell scripts with a digital signature;
  • Remote Signed — allows running local scripts without a signature. A digital signature is required to run PS1 files downloaded from the Internet or received from a local network;
  • Unrestricted — any PowerShell scripts are allowed. When you run an unsigned script that was downloaded from the Internet, a confirmation prompt will appear;
  • Bypass — in this mode, nothing is blocked, and no warnings or prompts appear.

By default, the LocalMachine = Restricted policy is set at the computer level. To allow PowerShell scripts to run only in the current session, you can run the commands:

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned –Scope Process
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> Get-ExecutionPolicy
> Get-ExecutionPolicy -List

        Scope ExecutionPolicy
        ----- ---------------
MachinePolicy       Undefined
   UserPolicy       Undefined
      Process       Undefined
  CurrentUser       Undefined
 LocalMachine       AllSigned
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